Selected References

Selected References for Oral-Systemic


Costerton J, Keller D. Oral
periopathogens and systemic effects.
. 2007 May-June;55(3):210-15.


Geerts SO et al. Systemic
release of endotoxins induced by gentle mastication:
association with periodontitis severity
. J Periodontol.
2002 Jan;73(1):73-78.


Gendron R,
Grenier D, Maheu-Robert L-F.
The oral cavity as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for focal
Microbes and
. 2000; 2(8):897-906.


Keller, D and J Costerton.
Oral Biofilm: Entry and Immune System Response. Compendium. 2009 Jan;30(1): 24-32.



Incidence of Periodontal

Burt B. Research, Science, and Therapy Committee of
the American Academy of Periodontology.
paper: epidemiology of periodontal diseases
J Periodontol. 2005 Aug;76(8);1406-19.


Ciancio S. Improving
oral health: current considerations.
J Clin Periodontol. 2003;30 Suppl 5:4-6.


. The
World Oral Health Report, 2003: Continuous
improvement of oral health in the 21st century – the approach of the
WHO Global Oral Health Programme.

World Health Organization: Geneva,


US Department of
Health and Human Services.
Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General – Executive Summary.
Rockville, MD:
US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and
Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2000Sep;28(9):685-95.




Angeli F et al. Association
between periodontal disease and left ventricle mass in essential hypertension.

2003 Mar;41(3):488-92.


Cavrini F et al. Molecular
detection of Treponema denticola and
Porphyromonas gingivalis in
carotid and aortic atheromatous plaques by FISH:
report of two cases
. J
Med Microbiol


D’Aiuto F et al. Periodontal
infections cause changes in traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors:
results from a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Am Heart J. 2006 May;151(5):977-84.


Deshpande RG et al. Invasion
of Aortic and Heart Endothelial Cells by Porphyromonas

 Infect Immun.
1998 Nov; 66(11): 5337–43.


Desvarieux M et al. Periodontal microbiota and carotid
intima-media thickness: the Oral Infections and
Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study.
Circulation. 2005 Feb 8;111(5):576-82.


Ford PJ et
al. Cardiovascular and oral disease interactions: what is the
Prim Dent Care. 2007 Apr;14(2):59-66.


Furuichi Y et al. Associations of periodontal status with general health
conditions and serum antibody titers for Porphyromonas
gingivalis and Actinobacillus
  J Periodontol. 2003 Oct;74(10):1491-97.


Gibson FC 3rd
et al.
Innate immune recognition of invasive bacteria accelerates
atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice.

2004 June 8;109(22):2801-6.


Golebiewska M et al. Periodontal condition in patients with cardiovascular
Med Sci
. 2006;51 Suppl 1:69-72.


Inoue K et
al. Association of periodontitis with
increased white blood cell count and blood pressure.
Blood Press. 2005;14(6):53-8,383; author reply 384.


Jain A et al. Role for periodontitis in the
progression o
f lipid deposition in an animal model.
Infect Immun. 2003


Kozarov EV, et al. Human atherosclerotic plaque contains viable invasive Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
and Porphyromonas gingivalis.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
2005 Mar;25(3):E17-8.


Kuramitsu HK et al. Interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis with host cells: implications for cardiovascular
J Periodontol. 2003 Jan;74(1):85-9.


Kuramitsu HK et al. Role of periodontal bacteria in cardiovascular disease. Ann Periodontol.
2001 Dec;6(1)41-7.


Li L, Messas E, Batista EL et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection accelerates
the progression of atherosclerosis in a heterozygous apolipoprotein
E-dificient murine model
2002 Feb 19;105(7):861-7.


Maiborodin IV et al. Changes in gum in cases of arterial hypertension combination
with periodontitis.
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2005:84(6):15-19.


Martin MC, Andres MT, Ffierro JF, Mendez FJ. Endarteritis and Mycotic Aortic
Aneurysm caused by an Oral Strain of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
Euro J Clin Microb Infect Dis. 1998 Feb;17(2):104-7.


Nakano K, Inaba H, Nomura
H et al.
Distribution of Porphyromonas
gingivalis fimA genetypes in cardiovascular specimens from Japanese
Oral Micriol Immunol.
2008 Apr;23(2):170-2.

Papaganagiotou D et al. Periodontitis is associated with Platelet Activation.
2008:May28.( Epub ahead of


Pussinen PJ,
Alfthan G, Rissanen H et al.
Antibodies to periodontal pathogens and stroke risk.
Stroke. 2004


Pussinen PJ, Toumisto K, Jousilhasti P et al. Endotoxemia, immune response to periodontal pathogens, and systemic
inflammation associate with incident cardiovascular disease events.
 Arterioscler Thromb Vasc T. 2007 Jun;27(6);1433-9.


Pussinen PJ, Vilkuna-Rautiainen T, Alfthan G et al. Severe periodontitis enhances
macrophage activation via increased serum lipopolysaccharide
Atherosc, Thrombs and
Vascular Biol
. 2004 Nov;24(11):2174-80.


Zaremba M. et al. Periodontitis as a risk factor of coronary artery disease? Adv Med Sci.
2006;51 Suppl 1:34-9.




Arnush M et al. IL-1 produced and released endogenously within human islets
inhibits beta cell function.
 J Clin Invest. 1998 Aug 1;102(3):516-26.


Engebretson S et al. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis
factor-a in patients with chronic periodontitis
and type 2 diabetes.
J Clin Periodontol.
2007 Jan;34(1):18-24. Epub
2006 Nov 20.


Grossi, SG. Treatment of periodontal disease and control of diabetes: an
assessment of the evidence and need for future research.
Ann Periodontol.
2001 Dec;6(1):138-45.


Hotamisligil GS et al. Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis
factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance.
J Clin Invest.
1995 May;95(5):2409-15.


Iacopino AM et al. Periodontitis and diabetes interrelationships: role of inflammation.
Ann Periodontol
2001 Dec;6(1);125-37.


Iwamoto Y, et
al. The effects of antimicrobial periodontal treatment on
circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha and glycated
hemoglobin level in patients with type 2 diabetes.
J Periodontol.
2001 Jun;72(6);774-8.


Kesavalu L et al. In vivo induction of proinflammatory
cytokines in mouse tissue by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.
Oral Microbiol
2002 Jun;17(3):177-80.


Noack B, Genco RJ, Trevisan M et al.  Periodontal infections contribute to elevated systemic
C-reactive protein level.
J Periodontol. 2001;72(9):1221-7.


Pischon N. et al. Obesity, Inflammation and Periodontal Disease
J Dent Res. 2007 May;86(5);400-9.


Schara R et al. Periodontal disease and diabetes metabolic control: a full-mouth
disinfection approach.
J Int Acad Periodontol. 2006 Apr;8(2):61-6.


Seinost G,
Wimmer G, Skerget M et al.  
Periodontal treatment improves endothelial dysfunction in
patients with severe periodontitis.

Heart J
. 2005 Jun;149(6):1050-4.


Slade GD, Offenbacher S, Geck JD et
al.  Acute-phase inflammatory response to
periodontal disease in the US population
. J Dent Res.
2000 Jan;79(1):49-57.


Steer SA et
al. Interleukin-1 stimulates beta-cell necrosis and release of
the immunological adjuvant HMGB1
. PLoS Med. 2006 Feb;3(2):e17.


Tonetti MS, D’Aiuto F, Nibali ,
et al.
Treatment of periodontitis
and endothelial function
.  New Eng
J Med
. 2007 Mar1;356(9):911-20.




Barak, S et al. Evidence of periopathogenic
microorganisms in placentas of women with preeclampsia.

J Periodontol.
2007 Apr;78(4):670-6.


Boggess KA et al. Antepartum vaginal bleeding, fetal exposure to oral pathogens and risk
for preterm birth at <35 weeks of gestation
  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;194(4):954-60.


Cota LO et al. Association between maternal periodontitis and an increased
risk of preeclampsia.
J Periodontol.
2006 Dec;77(12):2063-9.


Dasanayake AP, Le Y, Wiener H. et al. Salivary Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 2 and
Lactobacillus casei levels predict pregnancy
J Periodontol. 2005 Feb;76(2):171-7.


Gazolla CM et al. Evaluation of the incidence of preterm low birth weight in
patients undergoing periodontal therapy.
J Periodontol.
2007 May;78(5):842-8.


Kunnen A et al. Women with a recent
history of ea
rly-onset pre-eclampsia have
a worse periodontal condit
  J Clin Periodontol.
2007 Mar;34(3)202-7.


Lin D et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in pregnant
mice is associated with placental dissemination, an increase in the placental
Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio, and fetal growth restriction.
Infect Immun.
2003 Sep;71(9):5163–8.


McGaw T.  Periodontal disease and preterm
delivery of low-birth-weight infants.
J Can Dent Assn. 2002 Mar;68(3):165-9.


Offenbacher S et al.  Effects of Campylobacter rectus infection on murine
placenta, fetal and neonatal survival, and brain development.

J Periodontol.
2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2133-43.


Romero G, Gotsch F, Pineles B, Kusanovic JP.  Inflammation in pregnancy: its roles in reproductive
physiology, obstetrical complications and fetal injury.
  Nutr Rev. 2007 Dec;65(12 Pt 2):S194-202.


Walter C et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis Strain-Dependent Activation of Human
Endothelial Cells.
and Immun
. 2004 Oct;72(10):5910-8.



Alzheimer’s Disease

MacDonald AB.
Alzheimer’s neuroborreliosis with
trans-synaptic spread of infection and neurofibrillary
tangles derived from intraneuronal spirochetes
Med Hypotheses.


Miklossy J et al. Beta-amyloid deposition and
Alzheimer’s type changes induced by Borrelia
. Neurobiol Aging.
2006 Feb;27(2):228-36.


Riviere GR et al. Molecular and immunological evidence of oral Treponema in the human brain and their association with
Alzheimer’s disease
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2002 Apr;17(2):113-8.



Alteration and Oral Pathogens

Hamada Y,
Kondoh T, Holmlund AB et al. 
Cytokine and clinical predictors for treatment outcome of
visually guided temporomandibular joint irrigation in
patients with chronic closed lock.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg.
2008 Jan;66(1):29-34.


Henry CH, Hughes
CV, Gerard HC et al.  Reactive arthritis: preliminary microbiological analysis of the
human temporomandibular joint.
  J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000 Oct;58(10):1137-42. Discussion 1143-4.


Shinoda C, Takaku S.  Interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and
tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in the synovial
fluid of the temporomandibular joint with respect to
cartilage destruction.

Oral Dis. 2000 Nov;6(6):383-90.




Koyama S,
Sato E, Nomura H et al.  The
potential of various lipopolysaccharides to release monocyte chemotactic activity
from lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts
.  Eur Respir J. 1999 Sep;14(3):545-52.


Scannapieco FA et al. Oral bacteria and respiratory infection: effects on respiratiory pathogen adhesion and epithelial cell proinflammatory cytokine production. Ann Periodontol.
2001 Dec;6(1):78-86.


Sona CS et al. The impact of a Simple, Low-cost Oral Care Protocol on
Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Rates in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit
J Intensive Care Med.
2008 Nov 17 (Epub ahead of print).